Americans participation in environmental rallies assignment

Smith, T. M., & Smith, R. L. (2015).Elements of Ecology(9th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

A little more than a year later, on April 22, 1970, as many as 20 million Americans participated in environmental rallies, demonstrations, and other activities as part of the first Earth Day. TheNew York Timescommented on the astonishing rise in environmental awareness, stating that Rising concern about the environmental crisis is sweeping the nations campuses with an intensity that may be on its way to eclipsing student discontent over the war in Vietnam. Now, more than four decades later, the human population has nearly doubled (3.7 billion in 1970; 7.2 billion as of 2014). Ever-growing demand for basic resources such as food and fuel has created a new array of environmental concerns: resource use and environmental sustainability, the declining biological diversity of our planet, and the potential for human activity to significantly change Earths climate. The environmental movement born in the 1970s continues today, and at its core is the belief in the need to redefine our relationship with nature. To do so requires an understanding of nature, and ecology is the particular field of study that provides that understanding.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Americans participation in environmental rallies assignment
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

1.1 Ecology Is the Study of the Relationship between Organisms and Their Environment

With the growing environmental movement of the late 1960s and early 1970s, ecologyuntil then familiar only to a relatively small number of academic and applied biologistswas suddenly thrust into the limelight (see this chapter,Ecological Issues & Applications). Hailed as a framework for understanding the relationship of humans to their environment,ecologybecame a household word that appeared in newspapers, magazines, and booksalthough the term was often misused. Even now, people confuse it with terms such asenvironmentandenvironmentalism.Ecology is neither. Environmentalism is activism with a stated aim of protecting the natural environment, particularly from the negative impacts of human activities. This activism often takes the form of public education programs, advocacy, legislation, and treaties.

So what is ecology? Ecology is a science. According to one accepted definition,is the scientific study of the relationships between organisms and their environment.That definition is satisfactory so long as one considersrelationshipsandenvironmentin their fullest meanings. Environment includes the physical and chemical conditions as well as the biological or living components of an organisms surroundings. Relationships include interactions with the physical world as well as with members of the same and other species.

The termecologycomes from the Greek wordsoikos,meaning the family household, andlogy,meaning the study of. It has the same root word aseconomics,meaning management of the household. In fact, the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, who originally coined the termecologyin 1866, made explicit reference to this link when he wrote:

By ecology we mean the body of knowledge concerning the economy of naturethe investigation of the total relations of the animal both to its inorganic and to its organic; including above all, its friendly and inimical relations with those animals and plants with which it comes directly or indirectly into contactin a word, ecology is the study of all those complex interrelationships referred to by Darwin as the conditions of the struggle for existence.

Haeckels emphasis on the relation of ecology to the new and revolutionary ideas put forth in Charles DarwinsThe Origin of Species(1859) is important. Darwins theory of natural selection (which Haeckel called the struggle for existence) is a cornerstone of the science of ecology. It is a mechanism allowing the study of ecology to go beyond descriptions of natural history and examine the processes that control the distribution and abundance of organisms.

1.2 Organisms Interact with the Environment in the Context of the Ecosystem

Organisms interact with their environment at many levels. The physical and chemical conditions surrounding an organismsuch as ambient temperature, moisture, concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and light intensityall influence basic physiological processes crucial to survival and growth. An organism must acquire essential resources from the surrounding environment, and in doing so, must protect itself from becoming food for other organisms. It must recognize friend from foe, differentiating between potential mates and possible predators. All of this effort is an attempt to succeed at the ultimate goal of all living organisms: to pass their genes on to successive generations.

The environment in which each organism carries out this struggle for existence is a placea physical location in time and space. It can be as large and as stable as an ocean or as small and as transient as a puddle on the soil surface after a spring rain. This environment includes both the physical conditions and the array of organisms that coexist within its confines. This entity is what ecologists refer to as the ecosystem.

Organisms interact with the environment in the context of the. Theecopart of the word relates to the environment. The systempart implies that the ecosystem functions as a collection of related parts that function as a unit. The automobile engine is an example of a system: components, such as the ignition and fuel pump, function together within the broader context of the engine. Likewise, the ecosystem consists of interacting components that function as a unit. Broadly, the ecosystem consists of two basic interacting components: the living, or, and the nonliving (physical and chemical), or.

Consider a natural ecosystem, such as a forest (). The physical (abiotic) component of the forest consists of the atmosphere, climate, soil, and water. The biotic component includes the many different organismsplants, animals, and microbesthat inhabit the forest. Relationships are complex in that each organism not only responds to the abiotic environment but also modifies it and, in doing so, becomes part of the broader environment itself. The trees in the canopy of a forest intercept the sunlight and use this energy to fuel the process of photosynthesis. As a result, the trees modify the environment of the plants below them, reducing the sunlight and lowering air temperature. Birds foraging on insects in the litter layer of fallen leaves reduce insect numbers and modify the environment for other organisms that depend on this shared food resource. By reducing the populations of insects they feed on, the birds are also indirectly influencing the interactions among different insect species that inhabit the forest floor. We will explore these complex interactions between the living and the nonliving environment in greater detail in succeeding chapters.

1.3 Ecological Systems Form a Hierarchy

The various kinds of organisms that inhabit our forest make up populations. The termpopulationhas many uses and meanings in other fields of study. In ecology, ais a group of individuals of the same species that occupy a given area. Populations of plants and animals in an ecosystem do not function independently of one another. Some populations compete with other populations for limited resources, such as food, water, or space. In other cases, one population is the food resource for another. Two populations may mutually benefit each other, each doing better in the presence of the other. All populations of different species living and interacting within an ecosystem are referred to collectively as a.

We can now see that the ecosystem, consisting of the biotic community and the abiotic environment, has many levels (). On one level, individual organisms both respond to and influence the abiotic environment. At the next level, individuals of the same species form populations, such as a population of white oak trees or gray squirrels within a forest. Further, individuals of these populations interact among themselves and with individuals of other species to form a community. Herbivores consume plants, predators eat prey, and individuals compete for limited resources. When individuals die, other organisms consume and break down their remains, recycling the nutrients contained in their dead tissues back into the soil.

Organisms interact with the environment in the context of the ecosystem, yet all communities and ecosystems exist in the broader spatial context of thean area of land (or water) composed of a patchwork of communities and ecosystems. At the spatial scale of the landscape, communities and ecosystems are linked through such processes as the dispersal of organisms and the exchange of materials and energy.

Although each ecosystem on the landscape is distinct in that it is composed of a unique combination of physical conditions (such as topography and soils) and associated sets of plant and animal populations (communities), the broad-scale patterns of climate and geology characterizing our planet give rise to regional patterns in the geographic distribution of ecosystems (see). Geographic regions having similar geological and climatic conditions (patterns of temperature, precipitation, and seasonality) support similar types of communities and ecosystems. For example, warm temperatures, high rates of precipitation, and a lack of seasonality characterize th

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]