Applying Library Research Skills

Applying Library Research Skills

Healthcare professionals such as nurses and doctors are in danger of making errors, very much like any other individual in the world. The difference between healthcare professionals and others is that these mistakes can have destroying outcomes. Some simple mistakes include neglecting to break a pill in half or as serious as administering a medication to the wrong patient. Guaranteeing that patients are protected should be the main goal that healthcare professionals should follow. One of the top issues in healthcare facilities such as hospitals and long-term facilities is medication errors.

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One of the big topics learned in nursing school is the seven medication administration rights. These rights consist of the right documentation, right route, right reason, right medication, right time, right patient, and the right dose. Each of these administration rights helps prevent serious harm such as death to a patient. As a registered nurse, it is my responsibility to follow these rights when caring for my patients. Before administering, it is my duty to have the correct order for the medication before giving it. I must understand how each medication works as well. Along with my duty to act out the seven administrative rights, the nursing facility software can prevent medication errors but should not be relied on.

Identifying Academic Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

I searched for peer-reviewed journal articles relevant to my topic utilizing Harvard University Library’s databases. The search engine Summon was located in the library database, which helped me search. Then I searched keywords to help with my search, such as “medication errors” and “medication safety.” After placing my keywords in, I refined my search to show “peer-reviewed” and journals published in the last five years. Having articles published in the last five years makes research credible and up to date. Lastly, I read through articles to find relevant ones to my topic that bring forward a resolution to the problem.

Assessing Credibility and Relevance of Information Sources

Important steps were taken to provide my article with credible sources. Before choosing my articles, I used these steps while refining my search. I made sure that my search only gave me peer-reviewed articles. To ensure that the information was up to date, I picked articles published in the last five years. Again, I made sure that the topics were relevant and resolved my problem. Many articles were found relating to “medication errors,” “medication administration,” and “patient safety.”

Annotated Bibliography

Latimer, S., Hewitt, J., Stanbrough, R., & McAndrew, R. (2017). Reducing medication errors: Teaching strategies that increase nursing students’ awareness of medication errors and their prevention. Nurse Education Today, 52, 7–9.

This article began by showing awareness of medication errors worldwide that is creating a quality of care and patient safety issue. Nurses are the main healthcare workers who consistently administer medications and who can prevent medication errors. Proper education regarding the importance of medication errors and how to prevent them can help change the clinical practice. The authors state that implementing the importance of patient safety early in nursing school can help better understand and bring awareness. Providing nursing students with the knowledge and early exposure of medication error preventions and improving will only improve future clinical practice. The authors describe various teaching methods from Griffith University BN academics that provided first-year students with the tools they need to prevent medication errors and situations. The teaching strategies added more to just the seven medication administration rights. The students were enrolled in a medication safety course. The course focused on pharmacology knowledge and understanding medication errors, and various prevention strategies. A medication calculation competency was also embedded in the course. Short videos were also shown to the students that played various medication error scenarios. This article was relevant to my topic of medication errors as it shows awareness of the problem and offers a solution. The solution is to educate nurses early on while in nursing school to foster a safe clinical practice.

Dirik, H. F., Samur, M., Seren Intepeler, S., & Hewison, A. (2018). Nurses’ identification and reporting of medication errors. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(5-6), 931–938.

This article explained how medication errors and unsafe medication practices are the top cause of the harm that can be prevented. $42 billion is the estimated cost worldwide related to medication errors. Hypothetical case studies were given to nurses with various scenarios to see what they would consider a medication error. Two hundred fifty-four nurses were invited to join the study with 18 sample case studies. The case studies included scenarios such as similar drug names, wrong dose, and food-drug interactions. The responses were evaluated by expert nurses of various backgrounds. The authors say that most nurses were able to notice a medication error. Catching a medication error wasn’t the problem; a hesitancy to report due to consequences was the fear for nurses. Also, nurses were nervous about being looked down on by coworkers if admitting a medication error. The authors also noticed that nurses would most likely report a medication error if it resulted in more harm rather than minor. Nurses were also found to report their medication errors to the physician to quickly prevent injury to the patient. Instead of reporting to a medication reporting system, a team approach was made to avoid management involvement. Patient safety is compromised by avoiding medication reporting systems. This article was relevant to my topic as it explains why most medication errors are not reported. The authors suggested a no-blame reporting system, so nurses feel more comfortable reporting errors.

Gates, P. J., Baysari, M. T., Gazarian, M., Raban, M. Z., Meyerson, S., & Westbrook, J. I. (2019). Prevalence of medication errors among paediatric inpatients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug Safety, 42(11), 1329–1342.

This article introduced a high risk for medication errors in pediatric inpatient settings. The authors noticed that there weren’t estimates of the occurrence of medication errors with pediatric inpatient settings that show differences between paper and electronic charts. Five databases were searched to find studies occurring between 2000-2018. Medication errors were pulled from each study to be evaluated. Seventy-one studies were found, including 19 pediatric wards using electronic charting. The authors found that most of the medication errors included prescribing errors. Very few medication errors had administration errors among the studies. Additionally, utilizing electronic charts rather than paper reported more minor medication errors. There were inconsistencies with some electronic charting, such as error detection but no other issues. In all, prescribing errors were noted to be the main issue. This article was chosen because it points out the problem, which is the prescribing error. Focus can be done to improve prescribing by implementing a system to double-check orders before nurses administer. The article also points out that using an electronic charting system has been shown to prevent errors rather than paper charting.

Sarfati, L., Ranchon, F., Vantard, N., Schwiertz, V., Larbre, V., Parat, S., Faudel, A., & Rioufol, C. (2018). Human-simulation-based learning to prevent medication error: A systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 25(1), 11–20.

Medication errors were shown as a major issue in this article, with at least 1.5 million being preventable. This article bases its focus on simulation-based learning programs to prevent medication errors. The simulations were utilized to improve the skills and knowledge of healthcare professionals without direct patient care. After systemic analysis to learn about medication errors, trainings and simulations were recommended by the IOM Committee. The simulations included but were not limited to task trainers and mannequins to replicate real-life scenarios. These simulations were an ethical and fun way to learn instead as opposed to harsh monitoring systems. These simulations are not made to replace the monitoring systems but provide an additional learning opportunity. There is a lack of randomized controlled studies related to simulations compared to other methods. This article provided an alternative solution to my topic. Nurses have many different learning styles, and simulations could help as a hands-on learning tool. As more randomized controlled studies are implemented, the results will increase or decrease in medication errors.

Learnings from the Research

Throughout reading all the peer-reviewed articles, I gained a lot of insight on medication errors and various solutions. An example is learning that most pediatric medication errors were due to prescribing errors by Gates et al. (2019). Medication errors are a huge issue throughout the world, and it is important as a nurse to understand the facts of why they occur. I also learned how to utilize the Harvard database system to search for credible, up-to-date articles for my future research. Creating an annotated bibliography helped me understand the main points of articles and increased my knowledge of the topic.

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