During the course of this week, I had the opportunity to learn the mist important characteristic of Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The CVD are the leading cause of death worldwide, claiming an estimated 17.9 million lives yearly. Coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular illness, rheumatic heart disease, and other ailments all fall under cardiovascular disease (CVD). Strokes and heart attacks are responsible for causing four out of every five deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease. Additionally, one-third of these deaths occur in adults under 70. These conditions include but are not limited to coronary artery disease, chest discomfort, vascular disease, heart failure, and infectious endocarditis. The tests used to define the body mass index, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, ECG, and chest x-ray. Infective endocarditis, abbreviated as IE, is a disease that can be fatal and is very expensive to treat. Mortality and morbidity rates associated with IE continue to be high, with one in five patients passing away within 24 hours of their initial hospital admission. This is despite advances in surgical procedures and medical therapy. The chances of surviving IE over the long run are fifty percent. Delays in the diagnosis of IE can impact a patient’s ability to recover and even survive. The annual incidence of IE has reached nine instances per one hundred thousand persons in high-income nations, and the number of hospitalizations caused by IE has nearly doubled over the past few decades. Despite the lack of evidence on the prevalence of IE in countries with low and intermediate incomes, the overall majority appears to be higher than in countries with high incomes (Wang, 2020). Coronary artery disease leads to stiffening and narrowing of the coronary arteries, which provide blood to the heart muscle. Plaques are the culprit for this in the endothelium of the artery. The formation of an arterial plaque, also known as an atheroma, is the hallmark of atherosclerosis. The plaque has the potential to stiffen artery walls, which in turn reduces the amount of blood, oxygen, and nutrients that reach the heart.
Week 5 Discussion
This has been a very informative and educative topic that has expanded my knowledge. I have learnt several issues from this topic that will help me build my profession. The first major lesson I have learnt is the Gold Guidelines for COPD. This week’s lesson has enlightened me on how to review and update information about new guidelines. This has been my greatest nightmare, as I couldn’t study and update the policies before this lesson. I have learnt that a post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70 is diagnostic for COPD. This is an important concept that has helped me know more and how to handle this concept. In addition, categorizing airflow restrictions into phases using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) approach has improved my understanding of how to deal with them.
Another key learning was obstructive vs restrictive lung diseases. I was able to learn and master knowledge regarding the differences between obstructive and restrictive lung diseases. Warner (2022) explains that obstructive lung diseases include health conditions that make it difficult to exhale air into the lungs. Individuals suffering from restrictive lung complications have a problem with expanding their lungs with air fully. This condition has nearly identical main symptoms, such as shortness of breath; this lesson has given me a better understanding of how to distinguish the two lung complications. Forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC or FER%), the ratio of FEV1 to FVC, when expressed as a percentage, is the best method; I have learnt to distinguish the two.
Finally, I have also learnt about the most common lung cancer. Adenocarcinoma is the most common lung cancer affecting many people, especially in the US (Lobb, 2018). This cancer is said to affect nonsmokers as well. Thus, it has become one of the major threats. However, I have also mastered Non-Small Cell Lung CA (NSCLC) as the best treatment option that will positively impact my career.
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