Problems of Effective CrossCultural Communication

Problems of Effective CrossCultural Communication and
Conflict Resolution
Reza Najafbagy
Dr. Reza Najajbagy is professor of culture and change
management at the Islamic Azad University. Iran, and director
of a Master’s program in executive management.
Many failures in international cooperation and conflict
resolution seem to be related to communication
problems and cultural differences. In other words, the establishment of
realistic, proper and effective communication, based on mutual cultural
understanding and on goodwill, would solve many national and international
disputes. This article examines the contention that honest and effective
communication, based on cultural understanding, would contribute positively
to the solution of political, economic and social problems among nations.
Effective Communication Based on Intercultural and Political
Communication can be considered one of the most pervasive problems
among nations. Even within a single culture, communication tends to have
many complex effects. When communication takes place between two
cultures, these effects get even more complicated, primarily because they
are symbolized in one context and transferred into another. Intercultural
communication, therefore, needs co-orientation as a prerequisite. Coorientation refers to any eftbrt that may be necessary to familiarize and
train an individual in the life, work, social and political relations, norms,
values, traditions, religion and other aspects of one’s own culture and those
of other concerned nations. The following principles could clarify the kind
of co-orientation needed for conflict resolution:
* To increase our awareness and understanding of our own rights.
* To increase our awareness and understanding of our own culture.
* To become more cognizant of our attitudes and feelings towards people
of another country or community and vice versa.
* To better understand the social, political and economic environments of
other eultures and their impact on personal behavior.
* To gain better awareness and appreciation of the similarities and differences
between the different cultures.
* To be flexible and realistic to an extent that could contribute to resolving
But certain factors facilitate the understanding of the reasons behind a
conflict and help in dealing with its solution. The study of history, language,
religion, traditions, values and norms of other nations definitely helps in
intercultural understanding and problem-solving, but it is only a starting
point. Goodwill, honesty and respect are bases on which to develop political
and cultural knowledge.
In the West, technological progress seems to have somehow undermined
the need for the sound understanding of various levels of social and cultural
reality. People who are more adventurous and who visit and live among
societies other than their own are able to acquire a realistic knowledge of
other eultures. But it is not sufficient to understand how others differ; we
must also understand how we differ.^
Lack of attention to these norms, values and traditions and lack of
basic knowledge of intercultural communication among different nations
is a general problem even among officials and politicians at the highest
levels. Successful communication can only be achieved through sound and
sincere reciprocity. It is to nobody’s advantage to impose his or her culture
or power on others. In fact, cross-cultural contacts are harmful unless they
are conducive to constructive communication, and this can only occur if
the parties have respect and sympathy for each other and show a large
measure of flexibility.
It is through acculturation that we , , • / ^ /• i
, . , , . ,^ , ¡*fony misunderstanduiss have
can learn about cultural differences and . , ,
. j r j . . . – occurred, not only because the need for adaptation and change. Many r • ^ , – .,
, ^ ,. ^ , f / of mistakes m the usage of misunderstandings have occurred, not onlv j . . ,
. /- T , \ – , words or expressions^ but also because of mistakes in the usage of words . ^’, , , ,. , .„
, , , ^ because of the lack of goodwill
or expressions, but also because ot the lack . ,/ ,, , j
,,,.,,, , ,, and cultural knowledge.
ot goodwill and cultural knowledge, which
makes adaptation and change difficult.
Factors Affectitig Relationships between Nations
The idea that culture should be seen as communication is useful in
that it has raised issues that had not previously been considered, and, as a
result, has provided solutions that otherwise might not have been possible.
15.4/16.1 147
Feelings of superiority Communication is often blocked by the
towards the Other are most deliberate eultivation of cultural prejudice.
harmful when one is trying Feelings of superiority towards the Other
to build relationships and are most harmful when one is trying to build
solve conflicts between relationships and solve conflicts between two
two nations. nations.
Preconceptions about other peoples or
nations as being hostile, alien, illiterate and uncivilized create antagonism
and pessimism between the two parties and destroy other possibilities for
development and suecess. Some countries are more individualistic than
others in their orientations, which cannot be a sensible attitude in erosscultural communication and could lead to misunderstandings between the two
nations. Individualism is defined as “a social pattem that consists of loosely
linked individuals who view themselves as independent of colleetives and
who are motivated by their own preferenees, needs, rights and eontracts.”^
Among the many factors that inhibit cooperation and eonstmctive
relationships between nations is the expectation of being treated as
important, as exceptional and as having the right to enjoy extra privileges.
Adjustment to the values ofthe other country, together with goodwill and
respect for the status quo of the other party, are elements of successful
communication (particularly used by anthropologists). Those who know
their own culture and rights and are secure and content with it, and can
realize and appreciate the good that they observe in the communities in
which they work, live or come together to solve a conflict.”*
Another obstacle to the process of cross-cultural communication
and conflict resolution is that the
upper and upper-middle classes,
i.e., mostly wealthy people,
industrialists, merchants and top
government and private-sector
officials, etc., tend to become
integrated into a transnational
socio-cultural system oftheir own.
ál^^X^^ ^^^^ experience has shown that
> ^I^^^^^Kv^^^^ ^ ^^^^ groups have contributed very
little to the development process,
and have ignored their duty to
orient and give direction either
to the expatriates or experts in
, ^, arranging programs that are right
Barack Obama
and relevant for the development of their country.
It is essential to remember that most development projects, political
and technical assistance provided to developing countries do not take
cultural and soeial factors into consideration. A lot can be learned from past
experiences, such as the case ofthe failed technical assistance to Iran. In
1980 (a year afler the Iranian Revolution), a seminar was organized by a
number of American academics and advisers who had been trying for years
to introduce reform to Iran. Their lack of understanding ofthe society, the
culture, politics and history ofthe country had not only led lo the failure of
their reforms, but it had created additional problems, eonfüets and pessimism
among the people ofthe host country.
The aim ofthe American seminar was to study “the failure of U.S.
technical assistance in public administration: the Iranian ease.” American
aid to Iran started in 1953 in the form of aid to ministries and continued
for nearly 25 years. But even after decades, technical assistance failed to
produce the hoped-for results, and many more mistakes were made than
successes achieved because:
* Nearly all advisers in the public administration program arrived in Iran
with no knowledge ofthe language and with a superficial knowledge of
Iranian culture, history and social, economic and political systems;
* For an American to become attuned to the intemal politics of a foreign
country requires a radical shifting of his habits and attitudes; and
* Although one must caution against generalizing from a single case, or a few
cases, the Iranian ease — and others — strongly suggest that developed
countries do not know how to help
developing nations in their reforms.-^
The other case is the ongoing conflict
between Israel and the Palestinians. This is
essentially a dispute between two national
identities with claims over the same area
of land. Many attempts have been made
to broker a two-state solution, which
would entail the creation of an independent
Palestinian state alongside Israel. Perhaps
among the factors that have hindered the
resolution ofthe conflict between Israel and
the Palestinians is the lack of mutual trust —
a fundamental condition for the advancement
of understanding between the parties. Another Mahmoud A hmadincjad
15.4/16.1 149
reason is the feeling of delegitimization, for the delegitimization of the
adversary seems to be one ofthe major obstacles to a peaceful resolution of
any conflict. However, it is the violence between Palestinians and Israelis
that is the major obstacle to a readiness within both societies to make major
concessions towards a final settlement ofthe conflict.^
To sum up, in the area of cross-cultural communication, whatever
is done should be based on understanding, reciprocity and successful
cooperation. Today’s world order is crumbling, and there are unprecedented
economic, social and political crises which cannot be solved through
traditional means. It can only be done through the creation of a new world
order, i.e., basically, the creation of a world culture, a global culture, whereby
all people will develop collaboratively and responsibly, preserving not only
their biological and cultural heritage, but furthering their natural development
with greater awareness of and sense of solidarity with the Other.
1. Douglas Medin et al.. Sacred Bounds on Rational Resolution of Violent Political
Conflict. Proceedings ofthe National Academy of Sciences ofthe United States of
America (PNAS), March I, 2007.
2. Paul Beamish, Allen Morrison and Andrew Inkpen, International Management
(Boston: McGraw Hill, 2003), p.20l.
3. Rabi Bhagat et al., “Cultural Variations in the Cross-Border Transfer of Organizational
Knowledge: An Integrative Framework,” Academy of Management Review (April
2002), p.2O8.
4. Norman Daniel, The Cultural Barrier (Edinburgh: Western Printing Services Ltd.,
1975), p.62.
5. John Seitz, “The Failure of U.S. Technical Assistance in Public Administration:
The Iranian Case,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 40. No. 5 (Sept/Oct. 1980),
6. Neta Oren et al., “The Detrimental Dynamics of Delegitimization in Intractable
Conflicts: The Israeli-Palestinian Case,” International Journal of Intercultural
Relations,-No. 3\ (2007),p.llL

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Problems of Effective CrossCultural Communication
Just from $9/Page
Order Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment Help Service Works

1. Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2. Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3. Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4. Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essay GET A PERFECT SCORE!!! smile and order essay Buy Custom Essay

Place your order
(550 words)

Approximate price: $22

Calculate the price of your order

550 words
We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, 2018 at 10:52 AM
Total price:
The price is based on these factors:
Academic level
Number of pages
Basic features
  • Free title page and bibliography
  • Unlimited revisions
  • Plagiarism-free guarantee
  • Money-back guarantee
  • 24/7 support
On-demand options
  • Writer’s samples
  • Part-by-part delivery
  • Overnight delivery
  • Copies of used sources
  • Expert Proofreading
Paper format
  • 275 words per page
  • 12 pt Arial/Times New Roman
  • Double line spacing
  • Any citation style (APA, MLA, Chicago/Turabian, Harvard)

Our guarantees

Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.

Money-back guarantee

You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.

Read more

Zero-plagiarism guarantee

Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.

Read more

Free-revision policy

Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.

Read more

Privacy policy

Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.

Read more

Fair-cooperation guarantee

By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.

Read more
error: Content is protected !!
Open chat
Need assignment help? You can contact our live agent via WhatsApp using +1 718 717 2861

Feel free to ask questions, clarifications, or discounts available when placing an order.
  +1 718 717 2861           + 44 161 818 7126           [email protected]
  +1 718 717 2861         [email protected]