The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 Drug Policy
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The Controlled Substances Act of 1970 Drug Policy
Different laws and policies are enacted to protect and safeguard Americans from drug misuse and gun use to lead a healthy lifestyle. America is one of the countries facing the misuse and addition of drugs and other illicit substances. Not only in America, but drug and substance abuse have been a relevant menace globally and require an immediate response. As a result, different governments have engaged in finding efficient mechanisms to evaluate and determine the causes and implement strategic interventions to minimize and control the use, distribution, and sale of drug and substance abuse across the globe. Ideally, the United States of America enacted the Controlled Substance Act (CSA) of 1970, a drug policy controlling and regulating addictive and illegal drugs such as narcotics and marijuana. Thus, the Controlled Substance Act represents the federal American government policy primarily on drugs. The drug policy is not only a multiplex but an intersection for a better lifestyle among Americans. The current drug policy in America prevents and controls the use, distribution, and sale of stimulants, hallucinogenic substances, and depressants that people might abuse. Besides, the drug policy aids in determining if the contents in these drugs possess any medicinal purpose.
Notably, to remain effective in its goal, the Controlled Substance Act regulates and classifies drugs based on their possible abuse, medicinal benefits, and the harm they might impose on users. Narcotics and drugs are categorized in various classes and subclasses and scheduled depending on their abuse potential. Based on this drug classification, the high schedule implies strict laws in distributing and acquiring drugs. Several amendments have been made to the drug policy to change medications and pass laws in all states. Again, the Controlled Substance Act enhances intensive research to prevent drug reliance and substance abuse. Multiple procedures and frameworks for proper treatment and rehabilitation for drug addicts are well-defined in the act. Apart from the above-mentioned strengths, several weaknesses are attributable to the drug policy. For instance, the Controlled Substance Act restricted the access and sale to controlled substances among entities legal and registered to manufacture, distribute and sell the products. While the drug policy limits access to controlled substances, there is a registration exemption. Reduced findings on drug use and substance abuse and rehabilitated addicts would show the effectiveness of the drug policy. The paper will critically analyze the Controlled Substance Act of 1970 as one of the paramount drug policies in America. It will also discuss the implementation of the policy, its implications, significance, and effects on Americans. For it to be effective, the paper will also describe how other scholars have addressed the issue and the data required to evaluate the proposed solution’s effectiveness.
Substance and drug abuse have been at the forefront in the United States and other countries. Ideally, substance abuse is typically the medicinal term for describing a trend of utilizing a drug or another substance that leads to significant complications or distress. It is imperative to understand that substance and drug abuse is the hazardous or detrimental use of psychoactive substances such as illicit drugs and alcohol. A drug policy to address the extensive use of drugs and substance abuse in the United States will be paramount (Jalal et al., 2018). Indeed, the drug policy will ensure that most people do not continue using marijuana and narcotics, which have detrimental effects. The drug policy will eradicate the abuse of marijuana and narcotics among teenagers and other minors (Chen et al., 2019). From statistics, it is evident that marijuana is categorized under the Controlled Substance Act as a severe hallucinogen. Notably, marijuana has a strong connection and primary ingredient which produces psychoactive impacts on the users (Sacco, 2014). While marijuana is illegal according to Federal law, around 15 states have allowed its recreational usage. It is pivotal to note that addressing the extensive use of marijuana will reduce drug use disorder and related addictions.
Additionally, narcotic abuse is another policy issue that needs a quick response among American residents. Indeed, narcotics or opioids comprise synthetic versions, opium derivatives, and derivatives. While the FDA has approved some narcotics, such as Fentanyl, for anesthetic and pain-relieving purposes, they are some commonly abused and hazardous substances. Depressants are mainly prescribed to alleviate anxiety, prevent seizures and induce sleep (Feinstein et al., 2012). However, some form of depressants, including Rohypnol, is illegal in the United States but commonly abused alongside cocaine, primarily by drug victims of sexual assault. Besides, there is a need to note that stimulant abuse is common in America (Sacco, 2014). Stimulants usually come either in legal or illegal forms. Persons using illegal stimulants have a high chance of becoming drug addicts, which later leads to their death through overdose. Again, drug and substance abuse, including stimulants, are related to increased sex trafficking in the U.S (Hodroff, 2014). Commonly abused stimulants in the country include Adderall, Ritalin, and Concerta. Misuse of Adderall among teens, mainly for non-medicinal purposes, contributes to more than 1,600 emergency room visits yearly and severe side effects such as stroke and insomnia (Chen et al., 2019). The non-medicinal use of Ritalin is unlawful; its side effects include loss of appetite and hallucinations. Besides, the illegal use of Concerta among teenagers is rampant in America, and the side effects range from disrupted sleep patterns and stroke to vision disturbances.
Consequently, the drug policy issue has impacts on different parties. Indeed, the effects might be positive or negative depending on the parties’ roles and ranks. The drug and substances adversely affect teenagers who commonly abuse them (Florence et al., 2021). Indeed, many youths have misused drugs and illicit substances for recreational purposes. While most of these drugs are meant and legalized for medical purposes, they are illegalized for non-medical purposes (Sacco, 2014). For instance, the misuse of drugs and substances causes harmful effects to the users, including hallucinations, suicidal ideations, and death. Again, drug misuse might cause sleep disturbances and other fatal effects. Besides, the drugs and substances earn considerable incomes from dealers and other trafficking agencies. Even though marijuana is illegal in the United States, most states have reported huge sales amounting to billions of dollars (Chen et al., 2019). This implies that, while many agencies are fighting against drug and substance abuse, others are firmly against the initiatives.
Typically, failure to address drug and substance abuse in America and other parts of the world would adversely affect the users’ wellness. Illicit drugs and substances contain chemicals that adversely affect the brain and body. Indeed, some of these illegal drugs and substances have long-term and permanent health effects (Sacco, 2014). Most of these mental and physical consequences might persist even when the users have stopped taking them. The extensive misuse of drugs and substances causes drug or substance abuse disorder leading to their death. It is imperative to understand that failure to address the drug policy will lead to more deaths, disabilities, and disorders associated with drug and substance abuse (Feinstein et al., 2012). Evidently, individuals who suffer from drug and substance abuse or addiction have a greater risk of unintentional accidents, injuries, and domestic vehemence events. Again, drug and substance users will have weakened immune systems making them vulnerable to chronic disorders (Florence et al., 2021). Considering these detrimental and other deadly effects associated with drugs and substance abuse, there is a need to address the policy issue effectively and promptly.
Many scholars have discussed drug policy regarding drug and substance abuse extensively. Based on some of the studies, many countries have implemented policies to address the issue successfully. Indeed, countries that have understood the adverse effects of drug and substance abuse have implemented measures to tackle them accordingly. Various officials have been meeting in different forums to discuss drug policy, especially concerning drug and substance abuse (Jalal et al., 2018). For instance, based on some of the studies, the President of America, Mexico, and the Prime Minister of Canada held a meeting. They agreed to share information regarding drug abuse patterns, intensify coordination of pertinent drug policies, and implement vital actions that federal governments will take to protect their citizens from the sale, distribution, and use of harmful and illicit drugs, substances, and drug trafficking (Chen et al., 2019). Notably, most of these meetings mainly focused on common illicit drugs and substance challenges, including manufacturing, trading, use, and distribution. During their forums, the nations addressed the main adverse effects associated with drugs and substance abuse, such as the opioid crisis, and measures were set aside to address them (Sacco, 2014). The meetings discovered numerous best practices and strategies to collect information from various perspectives that could assist in addressing the drug and substance abuse issues in America, particularly in North America.
Subsequently, other issues that need further analysis encompass some states’ legalization of drugs that are illegal in others. For example, California, situated in the Western United States, legalized marijuana. As a result, the president of Mexico legalized and commercialized methamphetamine, heroin, and cocaine (Florence et al., 2021). According to the United States, the countries legalizing these illicit drugs and substances have violated international treaties that stand against the use of illicit drugs and substances. In addressing drug and substance abuse in America, its criminal justice framework comprises three unique elements, including law enforcement, adjudication, and corrections (Chen et al., 2019). Ideally, law enforcement starts when a crime is detected and entails arresting the criminal and collecting and preserving evidence. Again, it must establish the motives linked to the suspect and complete arrest reports by describing the findings of the investigation (Preuss et al., 2019). Adjudication encompasses putting the suspects under the court processes. This strategy involves arraignment, trial, sentencing, and maybe the death penalty for offenders found guilty. When looking at correction as the other element, it is pivotal to understand its mandates (Florence et al., 2021). It comprises reforms, rehabilitation, and revisions that might entail all sentences for suspects, excluding those on death row. Thus, the current criminal justice policy might influence the future of drug policies in America. The criminal justice framework in America regarding drugs and substance abuse engages drug suspects and dealers in treatment via various mechanisms, including diverting non-violent suspects (Jalal et al., 2018). In most cases, the treatment encompasses pre-trial release, probation, incarceration, and summoning drug courts.
The United States of America has been at a crossroads concerning drug policies for ages. The country tackled the sale, distribution, and use of illicit drugs and substances by intensifying border security, extending offenders’ sentences, elevating arrests, and implementing drug tests in the workplace and learning institutions (Oâ€™Donnell et al., 2017). Since Mexico and California have legalized the sale, distribution, and use of hard drugs and substances such as marijuana and opioids, other states in America have a considerable burden to address and eradicate the use, sale, and distribution of illicit drugs and substances, among residents. Their actions will affect other states of America because they cannot implement decisions about drug and substance legalization and trafficking without incorporating them (Preuss et al., 2019). It is also difficult for America to legalize the use and distribution of hard drugs and substances since it will intensify the number of addicts in society. While there has been a high number of people using methamphetamine, heroin, marijuana, and cocaine, drug users always hide from the authorities (Sacco, 2014). Considering the side effects of using these drugs and substances illegally, legalizing their usage will attract huge devastating effects on the country. Thus, America should never engage in legalizing, distributing, and commercializing hard drugs and substances such as marijuana, cocaine, and opioids.
Furthermore, legalizing and commercializing hard drugs and substances in the United States will increase the rate of contagious diseases such as HIV/AIDs. This is because most of these drugs are injected into the users’ bloodstream using syringes (Oâ€™Donnell et al., 2017). The criminal justice system in America should not support the legalization and commercialization of hard drugs and substances because of the adverse effects. Instead, the federal government must be at the forefront of eradicating drug and substance abuse in the country to steer economic growth and development in various critical dimensions (Sacco, 2014). It has also been a suitable action to help communities affected primarily by corruption exerting power in commercializing and using drugs, substances, and justice policies. For instance, corruption has impacted many individuals since it has been behind the extensive incarceration past the pre-trials (Preuss et al., 2019). The media has also depicted incidents of corruption, particularly in drug trafficking, attributable to government officials and cartels. Indeed, the officials must be at the forefront of dealing with illegal drugs and substances in America, including heroin, marijuana, and cocaine.
Essentially, these policies against hard drug and substance legalization and commercialization will support my proposed solution. Indeed, the judicial justice system and other drug policies have been fighting tirelessly against drug and substance abuse. In fact, they have provided adequate information and facts regarding drug and substance abuse in America (Preuss et al., 2019). The provided information will give a cornerstone for the implementation of the proposed solution to drug and substance abuse. For instance, it is evident from the analysis that America is against the legalization of hard drugs and substances such as marijuana, cocaine, and heroin due to their adverse effects on the citizens (Sacco, 2014). However, I would like to know the number of drug policies and their contributions toward eradicating drugs and substances in the United States. The additional information on drug and substance abuse will be retrieved from the National Drug Control Strategy, 2021 and 2022. The aim will be to collect adequate data on American drug policies and relevant mechanisms to eradicate drug and substance abuse in the country (Oâ€™Donnell et al., 2017). A lot of inclusive data on how the drug policy will minimize deaths interrelated to drug overdose and substance abuse, as well as strategies to educate drug users on prescription, and treatment or rehabilitation for drug addicts, is provided (Sacco, 2014). Nonetheless, if the data does not exist, conducting primary research will entail a survey with relevant questionnaires. The original research will focus on teenagers and other vulnerable groups in society who use hard drugs and substances like marijuana.
Propose a Solution
It is imperative to address the drug and substance abuse issue effectively and promptly to eradicate adverse effects on many users. The extensive use of hard drugs and substances has contributed to mental and physical complications among users. The effective application of the Controlled Substance Act will regulate medical and pharmaceutical practices and prevent drug overdoses (Lampe & Attorney, 2021). Like in the 19th century, the comprehensive medical and recreational drug uses in the United States can only be solved by implementing laws that regulate their usage, distribution, and sale. In this case, the Controlled Substance Act will prevent many pharmacists from prescribing hard drugs such as cocaine, morphine, and marijuana to patients with pain (Hodroff, 2014). The enactment of the drug policy by President Nixon aimed to minimize drug abuse among American citizens. The policy falls under the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which enforces the Act (Sacco, 2014). The American Congress will further enforce the Controlled Substance Act to address the country’s widespread drug and substance abuse. It will act as the legal basis for fighting against the use of hard drugs such as cocaine and marijuana for recreational purposes.
In addition, the Controlled Substance Act will enable the officials to create a system categorizing drugs and substances into various schedules centered on scientific and medicinal findings. The elected officials will also prepare an inclusive document to eradicate the drug menace in America effectively. There will be a need to design a policy and combine it with the existing policies on drugs to expand the magnitude of drug regulations (Jalal et al., 2018). To further curb the increased use of hard drugs and substances, the officials will pass the anti-drug abuse act to concentrate on delinquency drug verdicts. The Controlled Substance Act will facilitate the formation of compulsory minimum penalties for drug and substance trafficking in the country (Sacco, 2014). Again, it will coordinate federal agencies’ efforts to mitigate the demand and supply of hard drugs and illicit substances.
Markedly, the proposed solution to drug and substance abuse has numerous strengths and weaknesses. The Controlled Substance Act strongly correlates with checks and balances to eradicate faults and power decentralization. To address drug and substance abuse, the Controlled Substance Act coordinates with checks and balances to control and curb widespread abuse and addiction (Lampe & Attorney, 2021). Under these principles, physicians, pharmacists, and the public will be cautious and keen when prescribing and using drugs. In collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Controlled Substance Act will provide evidence-based guidelines and directions for prescribing opioids and other related drugs in pain management (Weedn et al., 2021). Such an undertaking is crucial to forming clinical standards for balancing the risks associated with opioid use to manage chronic pain. As a result, physicians must balance the legality of the medicinal needs of their patients with possible risks of abuse and addiction (Chen et al., 2019). Thus, they will minimize the non-medicinal use of opioids and other prescription medications.
Through the inclusive classification of drugs, the Controlled Substance Act has categorized Schedule I drugs, chemicals, and substances as those without accepted medical usage and having great potential for abuse. Indeed, Schedule I drugs have been grouped as the most hazardous drugs and substances with potentially dangerous physical and psychological dependence (Sacco, 2014). Primarily, the Controlled Substance Act has classified all drugs and substances that were somehow regulated under current federal law into a specific class depending on their medicinal use, safety, dependence, and potential for abuse (Oâ€™Donnell et al., 2017). Using strict laws on drug and substance importation, use, distribution, and sale, the Controlled Substance Act has protected Americans from the harm these drugs have on their bodies.
Nonetheless, there are several weaknesses attributable to the Controlled Substance Act and its role in curbing drug and substance abuse in America. For instance, the policy has put numerous restrictions on scientific research and analysis, which entail controlled drugs and substances. Indeed, very few cases have authorized extensive research on these drugs (Sacco, 2014). Due to such constraints, there has been an impact on researching Schedule I drugs and substances that might have medical uses. While some studies argue that marijuana has some medicinal uses and should be legalized, the Act still holds that marijuana is an illegal substance and has a high chance of abuse (Bridgeman & Abazia, 2017). According to the Controlled Substance Act, marijuana does not have any medical value and thus cannot be legalized. Such a decision puts a stringent policy that permits inclusive constraints on medical research of marijuana (Feinstein et al., 2012). While some scientists and medical experts argue that wide-ranging research and analysis on medical marijuana is paramount, the initiative has remained futile. Conducting such a study will require the specialists to get approval from the Controlled Substance Act, mainly through the Drug Enforcement Agency (Lampe & Attorney, 2021). Unfortunately, the agency has grouped cannabis under Schedule I and cannot be granted approval to investigate it.
The implementation of the proposed solution should be done collectively and effectively. Since drug and substance abuse is a public health concern in the United States, implementing the Controlled Substance Act will require communal involvement. Physicians and law enforcement agencies must educate people on proper drug prescription and use. They must understand various drug and substance use disorders, which entail illicit, prescribed medications (Lampe & Attorney, 2021). The public must focus more on controlling illicit drugs and substances rather than on prevention and therapy for drug addiction. While implementing the proposed solution, it is crucial to inform citizens that they should be considerate when electing Presidents. In this case, they must vote for leaders who fight against drug and substance abuse (Sacco, 2014). Consistent evaluation of the policy is essential. Suppose the proposed solution to eradicate excessive use of hard drugs and substances in America is effective. In that case, there will be reduced cases of drug addicts and few people in the rehabilitation centers (Hodroff, 2014). The criminal justice system will also report low drug and substance trafficking cases among American citizens (Bridgeman & Abazia, 2017). Physicians and pharmacists prescribing medications to patients will be keen to avoid drug abuse.
Countries have enacted various laws and policies, especially on drug and substance abuse, to improve people’s wellness and eradicate potential deaths and disabilities. Drug and substance abuse has been a primary health concern in the United States; its detrimental effects are enormous (Weedn et al., 2021). Ideally, while various laws have been passed to address the issue, enforcing the Controlled Substance Act will significantly solve the problem. This is an appropriate drug policy that controls and regulates addictive and illegal drugs such as narcotics, cocaine, and marijuana (Sacco, 2014). The Act regulates and categorizes drugs and substances based on their possible abuse, medicinal benefits, and the harm they might impose on users. Enforcing the CSA will be sufficient for my proposal since the judicial justice system and other drug policies in America have been fighting determinedly against drug and substance abuse (Oâ€™Donnell et al., 2017). The concerned parties will pass the anti-drug abuse act to concentrate on delinquency drug verdicts and to curb further the increased use of hard drugs and substances in the United States.
Bridgeman, M. B., & Abazia, D. T. (2017). Medicinal cannabis: history, pharmacology, and implications for the acute care setting.Â Â Pharmacy and therapeutics,Â Â 42(3), 180.
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